Pyramid Science

This is for researching science-based articles and the contents are for personal use although a wider potential interest is possible and so they are left here to view. No medical advice is given and a qualified medical practitioner should be consulted if any concerns are raised. Comments have been disabled, but any and all unsolicited or unauthorised links are absolutely disavowed.

Saturday, November 29, 2008

Axial Tilt

Axial tilt (Celestial Bodies) or obliquity is recognised as being the inclination of a planet relative to its orientation of rotation around the Sun: the ecliptic plane. The seasons have their origins in this change as any year progresses. The same observed continuously changing elevation of the Sun throughout the year would still happen if the ecliptic plane was not at the accepted average of 23.5 degs.  If this angle were greater, the shortest day would have the Sun closer to the horizon and very high for the longest day. A lesser angle would alter the altitude of the Sun to a lesser extent throughout the year.

It becomes an interesting exercise to speculate about the evidential 'proof' for this acceptance and differentiate between the two perceptions.

Axial Precession
Titius-Bode - caution

Monday, November 10, 2008


The psychological feeling of hunger and real starvation are different states. The 25 stone obese individual, although maybe feeling hunger, is certainly not like the desperately emaciated 5 stone anorexic. Self imposed starvation (Size Zero) cannot be overlooked either. The only common factor between the three is the psychological influence.

A lack of knowledge is dangerous: a belief that self-imposed starvation with its consequential weight loss is a good thing. It's misguided. The ultra skinny appearance is regarded as fashionable rather than being fatally flawed delusion. The human body needs carbohydrate for activity and any form of life-sustaining exercise, protein for muscle building and maintenance and the repair of tissue. And some fat. The exclusion of fat from any diet is as dangerous as refusing to drink a sufficiency of water.
  • Removing the engine from a car makes the car lighter, but it is effectively dead. The car cannot function.
  • Excluding carbohydrate, protein and fat from a diet may lead to death. This does not take into account the vitamins (vitamin = vital mineral) and micronutrients denied to the body and essential for the maintenance of good health.

Thursday, November 06, 2008

Titius-Bode: caution

  • The axial tilt of Neptune is 28.32 deg and as a planet should not exist (at least where it is) according to the paradigm described by the Titius-Bode Law. Neptune does exist and this is regarded as sufficient evidence for rebuttal. This Law could actually be true as a hypothesis and Neptune could have its origins elsewhere, though not far. Or the formation of the outermost planet is just misunderstood (the 'dwarf planet' Pluto has been reclassified and is no longer recognised as a planet) and the entire accepted interpretation of the solar system planets should be reassessed.
If Neptune is overlooked, then Uranus becomes the outermost planet. The four inner (rocky) planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars. The gas giants comprise Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus in terms of distance from the Sun to yield a total of seven actual planets. The Asteroid Belt exists between Mars and Jupiter and the outward gravitational pull of Jupiter and the inward tug towards the Sun could theoretically be cancelled out to prevent accretion and formation of another planet.

The Titius-Bode Law is empirical, yet is rejected as Neptune shouldn't exist, at least where it has been located. This presumes that the planetary distances are not in doubt. The other seven planets fit reasonably well within the law, yet this 'law' is rebutted by virtue of the one anomalous value: 30.1AU instead of 38.8AU. This may be fair and reasonable, but rejection without further consideration is neither fair nor reasonable.

a = (n+4)/10

  • n = 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384
    • [each integer is double the preceding number, except 0]
  • a = the average distance is in AU (astronomical units)
  • 1AU = Earth -> Sun distance (149.6 million km)
    • Mercury
      • 0.39/0.4
    • Venus
      • 0.72/0.7
    • Earth
      • 1.0/1.0
    • Mars
      • 1.5/1.6
    • Asteroid Belt
      • 2.77/2.8
    • Jupiter
      • 5.2/5.2
    • Saturn
      • 9.5/10.0
    • Uranus
      • 19.2/19.6
    • Neptune
      • 30.1/38.8
The actual distance (30.1 AU) excludes Neptune from being considered as applicable to the Titius-Bode empirical formula and so the law fails. But Neptune does exist where it is and some other reason must apply. An open mind is essential. Neptune should be around 5800.0 mkm (38.8 AU) distant and travelling at 4.79km/s, taking 241 years (not 5.45km/s and 164.79 years) to orbit the Sun for the Titius-Bode law to apply. A much deeper orbit and a consequence of slower orbital velocity.

  • Keplar's 3rd law still applies since an extended radius will translate to a slower orbital period.
  • The speculation is that all eight planets are connected by virtue of existing and must have been formed together. That's as far as it goes. Speculation constitutes hypothesis and can only attempt to explain observation. Gravitational influences would possibly have ensured that the axial tilt of Neptune was increased.
Alternative relationships can be considered and any concept of Truth can easily become clouded.

Fibonacci (Liber Abaci)
Pi, Phi and Fibonacci Number
Fibonacci and Pascal's Triangle (No. 8)
Pascal's Triangle
Pascal's Triangle (Number Theory)
Pascal's Triangle (Wikipedia)
Lucas Numbers
Fibonacci and Lucas

Wednesday, November 05, 2008

Barrel Of Oil

The term 'barrel of oil' maybe an historical one, but it does come from the original use of a 'barrel' that had no standard volume. The wooden barrel in use goes back to 1859 and Edwin Drake, who drilled the first oil well: Titusville, Pennsylvania in the United States of America. Production was greater than anticipated and washtubs were replaced with the wooden barrels used for transporting whiskey (40 US gallons), oysters, salt and corn (all similarly sized by volume). The lack of a standard size meant that customers paying by the barrel would get varying volumes of the product. Production increased and a standard become more important.

Standard Oil

As an historical note, oil has not been shipped in barrels for a very long time, though originally Standard Oil produced the painted blue barrel. The blue barrel (bbl) is nowadays a steel drum, but remains the standard unit for the measurement and pricing of oil.

The connection between oil and the very volatile waste petrol fractions with the internal combustion engine dates back to 1838 when the UK inventor William Barnett applied for a patent for the device. The federal government enacted new tax laws to help fund the Civil War (1861-1865) and even when the conflict ended, the taxes remained. The standard measure of oil by the 1870s had been set at 42 US gallons and helped the office of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue make its collections.

Oil production in the 1860s had maximised and the consequence was that the price of oil dropped to as little as 10 cents per gallon. The combination of the empty barrel costing 20 times this amount ($2) and the very high transportation costs as the teamsters charged dearly set the scene for the development of the first oil pipeline by Samuel Van Syckel. The change in attitude of 2008 makes for an interesting comparison, but it is only the consummate greed that manipulates financial markets that has evolved.

With tanks replacing them, the actual barrel eventually became obsolete. However, the 42 US- gallon (barrel) is still the standard unit of measure. Temperature can affect the volume of the contents as it expands when warmed or contracts on cooling.

  • Does the estimated volume of subterranean (hot) oil deposits actually demonstrate a potential error in reality? There is less than imagined: it cools on the surface and so contracts.
Citation: Daniel Engber (24th March, 2005)