Pyramid Science

This is for researching science-based articles and the contents are for personal use although a wider potential interest is possible and so they are left here to view. No medical advice is given and a qualified medical practitioner should be consulted if any concerns are raised. Comments have been disabled, but any and all unsolicited or unauthorised links are absolutely disavowed.

Saturday, April 18, 2009

Global Water Volume


The volume of a comet needed to deliver sufficient water to a sphere (Earth) in order to leave an estimated 71% sea distributed across its surface can be calculated.

The volume of the Earth excluding any water is approximated by:

4/3πr3
π = 3.142
Earth volume = 1,083,206,917,000 cubic km
  • The radius of the Earth is an average of 6371km (volumetric mean)
1,085,141,211,000 cubic km
  • The volume of water will be the difference between these two quantities:
1,934,294,000 cubic km
  • The proportion of water to land is roughly 71:29, so the actual volume of water will equate to:
1,373,348,740 cubic km

1.37bn cubic km (approx)

  • The diameter of a comet (water source) necessary to deliver this quantity of water would need to be about 1378 km:
r3 = 3/4 * 1,370,000,000 * 1/π

Radius = 689 km
  • Earth without water = 1,083,206,917,000 cubic km
  • Earth covered with water = 1,085,141,211,000 cubic km
  • Difference = 1,934,294,000 cubic km
  • If land:water is approx 29:71 then
Water = 1,373,348,740 cubic km
  • Radius = 689 km

Diameter = 1378 km

For the global level of the sea to rise by 1 metre, a volume of ice approx 1904 square km by a depth of 100 metres would need to melt. An initial volume (excluding land) was calculated above: 1,085,141,211,000 cubic km. To increase in the mean depth from 3790 metres to 3791 metres, the new volume would be:

1,085,141,722,000 cubic km

The difference between 1,085,141,211,000 and the new volume of 1,085,141,722,000 caused by the increase equates to 511,089 cubic km. Taking 71% of this reduces to 362,873 cubic km. An approximate size of 100 metres (deep) with a surface area of 1904 * 1904 km would provide this amount of water. [The volume of (water) ice differs to liquid water, but because of the enormous volumes involved does not here represent a significant difference.]

Similarly, the size of a volume of ice can be calculated that would raise the sea depth by 100m or 200m. This would absolutely and realistically


be available to melt unless a very large proportion of the sea was itself to freeze. Ice with a surface area to a height of just 1km would be necessary to increase global sea volumes by 1m, 100m, 200m as follows:

  • 1m depth = 602km x 602km (or 1904km x 1904km x 0.1km)
  • 100m depth = 6017km x 6017km
  • 200m depth = 8522km x 8522km

Clearly such an inundation is impossible.

The baseline water temperature and the associated volume of the oceans cannot be known. It is possible that the maximum atmospheric temperature has not yet been reached where cooling by the melting ice will result in much of the global land is threatened with deepening waters. This is now speculated, but scaremongering for cynical (or other) reasons is unforgivable. Science must rid itself of being corrupted by political interference. It is also possible that the alleged rising temperature is returning to an earlier (lower) value before any global cooling happened that formed the ice in the first place. This operates in a similar principle to ice contained in a drink to keep it cool. The ice melts and so removes heat from the liquid (latent heat). Alternatively, the minimum is still to be achieved. The melting-ice volume in the Antarctic has yet a long way to go before it is exhausted. The current problem is that increased water levels are just inconvenient. Living in low lands is not the best place to be, but Earth's climate cannot just be massaged to make it convenient.
The reality is there are some places that are unsafe in which to be. The change in climate will continue as a cyclical event.

Thursday, April 16, 2009

Fission And Fusion

Fission comprises large uranium atoms that split releasing a huge quantity of energy. Fusion invokes the opposite principle: hydrogen atoms combine yielding helium and energy. As war-machine devices (bombs). Both explode outwards. If this were to implode, then the energy would theoretically compress matter. No expansion and no noise since there would be no sound shock wave. This results in a quiet and smooth energy supply of enormous yield.

Imagine an engine based on this principle, maybe for launching spacecraft capable of unimaginable speed. Harnessing the energy of a lightning bolt would retain fantastic energy levels for later use. If it could be stored. The number of storms around the planet at any one time would provide enough energy for all for a very long time.

However, there is no known technology to store such energy and this will be a problem for Electric Motoring technology.

Sunday, April 12, 2009

Small Bites

  • Some of the entries here simply ask questions and do not attempt an answer, which would only be speculative anyway. Errors are likely to be found.
Last update: 21.06.2011

1. Does reflected light from a mirror double the output or halve it? Two bulbs shine as four. Two overlapping shadows become additively darker, so can the same principle apply: two light sources additively get brighter from a light source's own reflection? But this would involve the creation of (light) energy and according to the Conservation of Energy this would be disallowed. However, this only applies to a closed system. What constitutes a closed system when considering a small part of a system within a bigger system? This becomes a semantic argument.

2. Can DNA be ‘planted’ to incriminate someone?

3. Headache when brain has no nervous system. It is apparently caused by the dilation of blood vessels. So, it is a referred-type pain? What is pain? Is it psychologically perceived and 'created' in and by the brain? But what actually is pain?

4. Equilibration of air pressure is required before introducing an atmosphere. Disaster will strike otherwise.

5. Quantum entanglement: as opposed to physically connected to cause movement, no actual connection and maybe a long way apart. Like air pressure making a valve close. No visible agent causing the movement. But not air. Something else. Something not tangible and invisible.

6. Celestial mechanics is complex, but the principle is quite straightforward.

7. Presence of phosphorus and nitrogen based fertilisers causes an increase in CO2 output (18% and 22%, respectively).

8. The auto industry is moving towards hydrogen as an alternative fuel. The message? Petrol-fuelled engines will soon become obsolete.

9. Lightning at Saturn. What causes that phenomenon? What creates lightning?

10. Dopamine gene and what is the effect if it gets switched off?

11. How can waves move through a vacuum? Is it illusion?

12. Physical particles don't "create" an opposite. A plus force automatically creates a minus opposing force. They co-exist mutually.

13. How is gravity affected by rotational speed?

14. Virus trapped in ice: when the ice melts, what are the consequences? If the virus survives the cold conditions, it will surely behave as though it had been in suspended animation. Any animal organism that has adapted over many thousands or more years will react as though the virus were new and not ancient.

15. Gaseous mixtures as they warm up become less dense if not confined in a box (molecular collisions increase and molecules move apart). Hot air rises and creates wind as it moves away from cooler air. At high altitude it sinks as it cools. The rotation of the Earth over the time to rise and sink again means the air mass has moved eastwards in the northern hemisphere. The point where the air was heated creates a depression of low pressure. When the air sinks it does the reverse - high pressure anticyclone. High goes to low so air masses move from anticyclones to depressions. This is a general principle, though local effects can change behaviour quite dramatically. Bottlenecks like valleys or mountains can slow or accelerate depending on the original direction.

16. In the north, wind blows clockwise around an anticyclone and anticlockwise around a depression (reversed in the south). The vortex created in a plughole is clockwise in the northern hemisphere. Down the drain and likened to an anticyclone by increasing pressure?

17. The essential weather systems of the Earth can be hostile to Human or any other lifeform. Depressions causing upflow of water to be carried by the wind is critical. Any interference is dangerous. The Earth has survived 100s of millions of years. Man has been around for only a few hundred thousand years. Man is not a successful species. Yet.

18. Carbon dioxide and methane from the rotting of dead vegetation and other organic matter increased (both are greenhouse gases) causing a temp increase in line with a more active Sun (getting hotter) and less oxygen being produced.

19. Remember originally there was no oxygen. This was tied up in inorganic sources like rocks. These were formed with the release of large amounts of water from which the oceans derive. Earth was then able to flourish. Oxygen breathing creatures evolved to scavenge this poison and regenerate the CO2 to aid the survival of plants.
  • Review plants/animals both carnivores and herbivores and how each would separately evolve.
20. The curvature of the Earth is not noticed by moving between two points A and B when they are close together. It appears to be simply a straight line without any deviation. An observer sees the curve from a different point of view. The illusion is possible because it's a shallow curve.

21. Conventional methods of propulsion rely on action/reaction with the environment. Unless escape this thinking will never get past the first post. General relativity deals with gravity. Quantum theory with the very small. Even atoms have gravity, although very small. This is the difference between the micro- and the macroscopic. The deformation is not of space or time (the four dimensions, but there are more than these)when a mass is placed inside it, but of the mass itelf. It just seems this way. The perception. The illusion. The integration of new thinking or ideas into conventional physics is as wrong and limiting as the idea that the Sun goes around the Earth, which is NOT the centre of the Universe. It takes a leap of the imagination to go forward now rather than waiting for it to be proved valid. Literally wasting time.

22. Femtosecond (time): one quadrillionth of a second; "one thousandth of a nanosecond". Ppm, ppb, ppt. Even with this, cannot approach the levels of accuracy necessary.

23. Trace Fe in blood (around 30 -> 35mg total in 8 pints?). Local gravity effects within the physiological system only need be very slight to predispose towards chiral molecules. Check out ortho- and para- H2O molecules.

24. It's always concerned with shape and electronic charge distribution. Must not be seduced by the pictures that represent molecules. This is missing the point of interactive site location and as the whole molecule is necessary to create an effect.

25. Reverse the explosion sequence to get implosion idea. Gas to solid. Small space creation: 14KNO3 + 4S + 12C = 4K2SO4 + 3K2CO3 + 8CO2 + CO + 7N2

26. Sun's differential rotation. Middle rotates faster that poles.

27. Why not alchemy? Same basic atom: neutrons, protons and electrons. Arrangement of the heavier particles cause difference of local gravity and space and time. Change the arrangement, get altered atom/element. Compare with radio-emissions and conversion to another element. Same principle.

28. Oily appearance of water shows something has been dissolved in a miscible solvent and the solution added to the water.

29. The water overhead to produce food is staggering. Between 2000-5000 litres of water for 1kg rice. One thousand litres for 1kg wheat. To yield just one 'quarter pounder' takes 11,000 litres to raise the cow that produces it. And 2000-4000l for a litre of milk. Over 3000l for 1kg sugar. That 1kg coffee tips over 20,000l (20 tonnes).

30. 'Rainwater harvesting' is the efficient collection of water from rainfall. Slowing it down to fill the tanka (derivation of tanks from this Indian word).

31. Perception of temperature variation caused by atmosphere. The change in the distance between the sun and earth is only a few million miles though the amount of radiated heat striking the earth is roughly a constant. The heat potential is not much less the further away the earth is. It is too little change in distance for that. The atmosphere does it all. Without the atmosphere the variation of temperature wouldn't happen. The oceans act as a giant heatsink, absorbing this heat. About one half of the surface of the earth is water constrained on one side. One third is dry land and this absorbs heat in daytime. Land absorbs and releases heat quickly. Water absorbs heat and releases this very slowly by comparison, but look at hurricanes and cyclones. The effects of heat have enormous consequences. The consequences move very fast changing the Earths's atmosphere as it goes. Chaos and disturbance are features of the earth. The human condition almost subconsciously accepts this and this has its own consequence. It is no wonder that the nature of humans is somewhat chaotic and very unsettled.

32. When mountains are eroded by the environment, natural shape is crudely conical. The final shape depends on prevailing winds. Pyramid mimics this effect with the four general directions to reduce wear. The original smooth, white finish... what purpose?

33. Differentiation between atoms made up of same protons, neutrons and electrons - anything else? Why are the atomic forces so able to keep the atoms so discrete? Distinct. Remarkable. Like galaxies? Gravitational forces so separate between them. Great distances involved.

34. Is gravity purely a result of motion? Difference between gravity and magnetism. How does centripetal/centrifugal force fit?

35. Gas Giants: are they just too big and not condensed or compacted into smaller entities.

36. 'Quantum entanglement'. If quarks are spin-paired then separated, if the spin of one is changed, the spin of the other changes instantly in sympathy. 'Spooky distance' - Einstein. Force unknown.

37. Check Fermi and tunnelling electrons.

38. If human stereo vision is limited to about 2 deg, what happens for monocular vision? What can be seen? No depth of field (distance). Is there rapid switching left/right or does the brain 'process' separate images?

39. On what basis is the age of the Moon estimated? A few samples of rock brought back by alleged Apollo astronauts/robots? The Moon was never borne out of Earth. It is a captured planet sent by the alien.

40. If I travel due south by plane at 500mph, the Earth will move eastwards by about 1000 miles in the same hour. Since I am not in contact with the ground, but still passing through the air, will I need to compensate for this sideways movement? Probably not: like the different experience of movement inside and outside of a train.

41. The genitalia are designed to simply ensure the male sperm cell reaches the female egg. Orgasm increases the chance of the two cells meeting. The female cell is a single entity while the male is numbered in millions. That describes the absolute importance of conception when only one cell is required. The union, or fertilisation, creates a new single entity from two unique parts, each of which cannot by itself form a living being. The new single cell as a mixture forms a symbiotic dependency and becomes a unique life form.

42. The Sun and (Earth's) Moon both rotate once in 28 Earth rotations (days). The Sun polarisation of equatorial poles are 7 day fluctuations from +ive to -ive, Sinusoidal. The equatorial regions rotate faster (28 days as seen from Earth, 26 days absolute) to vertical poles (40.5/37) days.

43. The Sun: 26 Earth days for rotation (28 as seen from Earth). Earth has moved on 1/12th year after ths time. Moon has revolved once about its axis. Connection between 11.5 years solar cycle (solar 'year' as Sun rotates on spot) and Moon's 28 days: 11.5*365/28 = 149.9. Distance in millions of km of Earth to Sun. Review 26 day solar 'day' and 28 day lunar 'day' and how orbit increases this period. Earth moves on 1/12th circumference of orbit so solar 'day' is 26+(26/12) = ~28 days. There is a catch-up time. Same for Moon. Relative motion takes place. How does Earth (and Moon) and Sun synchronise over one year? Equatorial regions = 37 days (37+37/12 = ~40.5 days).

44. If electrons are stripped away from atoms then the space occupied is much less. The repulsion between atoms is lessened and so greater density is achieved even though the forces between nuclei cause internal repulsion. Pressure can overcome this so causing nuclei to fuse with one another. New elements are formed. Even unstable atoms are 'forced' into stability(radioactive decay is prevented).

45. What is fire? The removal of oxygen causing a breach in a time-space barrier. Heat (low temperatures) results. SHC is intense and very localised heat output. Work on this theme.

46. Review lung volumes. By 1980 global population was 4billion. At 2005 it was well on the way to doubling and was 6.5-7billion. Increasing: greater oil consumption and more CO2. Money is the driver since power is paramount. The human race is doomed and is part of the plan. The silent arrival and killing without ever noticing.

47. 8CO2 + 10H2O -> 2C4H10 + 13O2: catalyst = M+ not of this Earth, but disguised by creating a new complex.

48. 'Dark matter' seems to implicate hydrogen, but emits no light. The question occurs: what is responsible for light? Fusion to He? The speed of light becomes redundant in the absense of light. (Not an original idea.) Adapt the principle of dissolving a solid to produce a clear solution. Solid dissolved in the 'nothing' of space. Separation of solvated components in the medium of space. Dark matter?

49. Unknown 'stable' terrestrial elements can still exist. The mechanism of their formation cannot occur in our solar system. Heat, pressure etc and our understanding of life prevents the formation.

50. Capture the propellant exhaust gas from an engine and re-use the potential power. Convert propulsive energy by overcoming friction.

51. Fusion: overcome proton repulsive +ive charges to form He.

52. How can a battery be recharged in space? Is solar the only way? Apply this logic on Earth.

53. Conditions in our solar system only allow up to Uranium to exist. Elsewhere here is no reason for any limit other than the conditions themselves.

54. Gravity: the close packing of molecules creates greater density and the gravitational effect is increased. Oxygen does not settle because of gravity, but is easily moved about, yet if left undisturbed will 'gravitate' downwards and collect together.

55. A magnetic field repulsion (or attraction) by contrast does not appear to weaken. What, then, is the difference between the two energies?

56. Is gravity somehow related to atmosphere? Go higher, less air, less gravity. Assumption that gravity goes to the centre of a body. Cannot be shown and may only permeate a few miles or so. Liquid mantle disallows investigation. Weak gravity of Moon. Maybe it's not!

57. The further out an object, slower the orbit. Closer in then faster. Moon at an average 238,855 miles (24,000 miles variation between perigee [closest] and apogee [furthest]) takes 27.32 days synchronous 'monthly' rotation. Earth perihelion (closest = 0.98AU)and aphelion (furthest = 1.017AU). What causes this 'balanced', but asymmetric, orbit? The Earth must effectively have an unstable 'wobble', a precession rotation caused by the irregular land mass distribution. Geo-stationary position for satellite (matched orbital speed) is 22,300 miles. Any closer encounters atmosphere and frictional slowing. Otherwise would speed up even more, just like the ice-skater/arm length scenario. Size is 27% that of Earth. For the Moon it would be further out to cause a permanent shadow spot (smaller than current as further in). Is Moon orbit speeding up or slowing down? Getting closer/moving away. I think it is moving away so it is the wrong 'natural' direction. Where would shadow be located if land slippage so fast (7 days to create the Earth all those billions of years ago)? Egypt and/or Mexico? Moon moved in and out to reposition. Could be further out for effective opposite orbit or further in to speed up. Either way, easily repositioned.

58. The harmonic creates a hybrid tone, but is neither of the components. Ratios record the relative change between two components at any moment. This can be constant as in harmonics or different.

59. Is dietary approach possible by minimising intake of foods that are rich in the amino acid that promotes growth. Could be a balance between denying the amino acid to cancerous cell, but not to cells needed for life.

60. Increased mobility has brought its many problems: exposure to more UV from the sun and cellular DNA damage. Foods and 'foreign' diseases.

61. Doesn't need much methane or CO2 to make a significant environmental change: 0.04% CO2 compared to 70% nitrogen and 20% oxygen.

62. Does the Fibonnacci sequence define the spiral pathway down a pyramid and produce a straight line? But why four faces and not 3, 5, 7...? Four essentially distinguishable seasons. The change of one to the next is really very fast. Is the precessional 'elliptical' orbit enough to explain this or is there more to this simplistic notion?

63. How foolproof is a DNA trace? Chromatogram or what is it anyway?

64. How would it be possible to speculate what lies between the west and east coast of the Sahara desert if all that is viewable are the surrounding grains of sand around one grain: 'above', 'below' and in any other direction?

65. The millions of degrees heat towards the Sun's core, creates an environment where a liquid wants to be a gas, but the tremendous pressure prevents vaporisation to a gas. This illustrates a situation that on Earth confounds physical laws. Some radioactive elements on Earth can exist as stable elements in another environment with very different pressures and temperatures.

66. How is relative mass estimated for a distant planet? It cannot be weighed. Must be related to its gravity.

67. See beryllium: sun spot activity indicates cosmic ray increase. The interaction with atmospheric oxygen generates beryllium-10. A weak magnetic field on Earth would cause less deflection of cosmic rays. Combination of a weaker magnetic field and greater cosmic ray activity creates more beryllium-10 and leads to less oxygen.

68. Is there a connection between Moon elevation and weather? Low in sky and full moon (Sun at 180 deg) yields (very) high-tide. Very rainy deluges (low pressure). Moon high in sky - is this high pressure and good weather?

69. The problem in take-off is overcoming inertia. The answer is to make mass weightless. Cancel gravity and remove inertia: instant velocity. Acceleration as a concept is modified. Inital (zero speed) reaches terminal velocity instantaneously. Acceleration is zero. Move from V1 to V2 in zero time. Without cancelling force V2 remains unchanged. How did Earth, planets and everything else acquire initial velocity? Under acceleration forces, why does an object stop accelerating and move at constant velocity if no forces act to negate acceleration?

70. Why is the tide wavelike? Why isn't the motion smooth since the rotations of the Earth and Moon are smooth? Is this an example of 2D to 3D translation of motion? The ground over which water moves is not flat or regular. The smooth flow is interrupted and warmer/colder water mixing causes disturbance. Effect is the erratic (not discernible) pattern observed, but with an overall theme: tide in or out.

71. The part of the brain that interprets pain? Chemicals transmit enablers, but what is and what actually creates 'pain'? Cocaine inhibits dopamine synaptic clearance sustaining the dopamine pleasure effects. A properly functioning synapse requires dopamine. This implies success will be a pleasurable experience.

72. Creation of atoms by altering numbers of protons/neutrons/electrons. An example: bombard nitrogen gas with clusters of protons and neutrons to obtain oxygen.

73. If a limb or any body part is removed and subsquently destroyed there is no recognition of the part at all, only perhaps a ghost limb appreciation. Does this happen with internal organs, but is just not recognised as such? A limb is associated as being long term and its loss is easily noted. A tumour is not missed. This implicates a mental state and recognition.

74. Under enormous pressure (supernova) electrons and protons fuse together to form neutrons. Neutrinos are formed and ejected at the speed of light. Heavy elements like iron (cannot burn) are formed as an endpoint.

75. The rise in the level of CO2 is not the cause of warming, but the effect. As the sea warms, the amount of CO2 released increases. This is the nature of a warm liquid: its capacity to absorb a gas is reduced. Cold liquids retain more gas. The consequence of warming oceans is the rise in atmospheric levels of this greenhouse gas. The sun is getting hotter by burning more helium in its furnace. Simple, and has little to do with burning fossil fuels though this clearly does not help.

76. Why the natural L-isomer of optically active molecules? Are notes 351 and 352 connected?

77. Consider the differences and similarities between volcanoes and 'craters'.

78. The iron/nickel (?) core in the centre of the Earth is the reason for the apparent magnetic pole shift. The effect is because of precession. Liquid mantle does not allow any connected or synchronised movement due to the momentum of this rotating liquid.

79. Rock age by elemental radioactivity decay rate. Only C14 to determine age of organic material. Examine damage track made by such decay. Around 25micrometres (25millionths) long. Based on decay rate, can calculate the length of time necessary to produce that number of tracks for a known amount of radioactive material present.

80. Hypothalamus regulates body temperature. Increased blood flow to skin with sweating. Evaporation causes cooling.

81. Galaxyescape velocity (maybe) 50 times faster than achievable. Whatever, essentially not possible and ensures being trapped in the box unless other forms of relocation are discovered. Note: any advance ill be slowed or stopped while the discovery is turned towards war and control. The 'richest man in the graveyard principle'.

82. What is there in a pacemaker that creates the hazard with a (strong) magnetic field. If non-ferromagnetic materials are used (titanium, aluminium) or stainless steel (iron alloyed with chromium and nickel) or cobalt-chromium alloy. Cobalt, nickel and iron are feromagnetic metals, but are rendered non-magnetic as the alloyed material.

83. Colour is the reflected light.

84. Implications of axial tilt change of precession. If orbit track doesn't alter, the shift of Earth's land masses causes changes in the oceans by displacement of water by land. This is in addition to the 'melting' ice-caps.

85. The subtle and unnoticed shift of as little as 0.5deg would cause more land to be warmed in the daytime (by a hotter Sun) and so take this extra heat around to a modified mnnnposition as night proceeds to be radiated into the air. The air currents warm the colder ice regions enough to cause some melting to cool the warming seas. Impeding air flow is reduced and weight loss continues to alter the axial shift as polar regions become lighter. The 'wobble' subtely changes.

86. Gravity: the Sun is very magnetic with solar flares being swirled back down to return from the object that tried to eject them. Planets contain iron and nickel (paramagnetic?). The return involves turning which in turn causes rotation.

87. Fascinating 'fact': has this been proven or is it just theoretical? Light travels at a finite speed (300,000m/s). But the gravitational effect is instant, whatever the distance. So, what effect is known about the gravitational influence of a planet one light year distant or more or even 400bn km/miles distant. Instant? Who really knows?

88. Tidal waves. Why do waves occur when Earth/Moon rotation is (presumed to be) smooth. Once a volume of water has been set in motion, the direction cannot be altered. The Earth/Moon objects continue in a continuously modified direction relative to the original direction of the water flow. Consequence is appearance of a judder or waves as each new volume of water and its wave begin.

89. Four (?) hydrogen atoms to make helium. Is it bimolecular?

90. Earth passes between positioned-in-space metal coil: electromagnetic Faraday principle produces electricity to electrocute the Earth!

91. The only difference between O2 and CO2 is carbon. Putting aside all other elements that enable a living entity, these two (C, O) are critical to the support of life. Without them nothing else is necessary. Life would not exist. To imagine that random evolution could develop the incredible complexity of life is as ridiculous as believing that enough time and typewriters would culminate in an exact copy of Shakespeare's Hamlet.

92. The absolute zero of -273.16deg is only relative to the Kelvin scale and is essentially arbitrary in its starting point. Temperatures go much lower, but are neither measurable nor attainable. This does not imply that temps lower than this do not occur in the vastness of space. Somewhere.

93. Differences caused by optical isomers. Recognition and effect.

94. Is there any clear and simple correlation between CO2 level increase and population growth.

95. If coal originated from CO2 what caused the reduction? The oxygen caused life to start, but what cataysed the chain into being?

96. Physical shape of a molecule simply places the required electron density at precisely the right place. Simple really.

97. Assymetric compound enzymatically cleaved in the presence of a chiral co-factor that then selectively destroys one of the enantiomers. Or the wrong enantiomeric product fails to undergo the next reaction in the sequence. Wrong internal structure that is necessary to facilitate the reaction. Simple, but critical.

98. The particular orbit rotation orientation of Earth predefines the optical preference of molecules through gravity and angular momentum. Predisposed selectively. The natural enantiomer is the L-form.

99. Reduction of atmosphere by hydrogen to remove molecular oxygen and produce water. O2+H2 -> 2H2O. Oxygen is also trapped as CO2 with carbon. Higher temperature and less oxygen is possibly the ideal for an alien. Inert N2 is simply a diluent. Remove nitrogen and the concentration of all gases increases. More water and more CO2 gets dissolved as the temperature is raised.

100. The number of cells in the human body is over 600 billion trillion: 600,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.

101. Fission bomb: a single, large atom (uranium) splits releasing a huge quantity of energy. Fusion bomb is the opposite. Hydrogen atoms combine yielding helium and energy. As war-machine devices (bombs), both explode outwards. When this implodes, the energy is used to compress matter. No expansion, no noise by sound shock wave. This gives a quiet and smooth energy supply of enormous yield. An engine for launching spacecraft capable of unimaginable speed. Harnessing a lightning bolt retains fantastic energy levels for later use. The number of storms around the planet at any one time would provide enough energy for all for a very long time.

102. Amorphous solids come out of solution from molten rock (a mixture of inorganic compounds) since they cannot crystallise. The concentration of any one compound is not sufficient to allow true crystallisation.

103. The elegant simplicity of the digestion system, the conversion of foodstuffs into energy and its transport to every cell that number trillions. Enzymatic degradation and dilution of complex matter into its constituent parts with the eventual recovery of water before removal of waste matter.

104. The Big Bang needed space to expand into. Or the pressure wave (in all directions) pushed its way to 'create' space.

105. The arrogance of Man is borne in the belief that as the species languishing at the top as the most advanced, sophisticated and intelligent, the blindness of denial explains the obvious oversight that evolution continues in spite of Man. All the support drugs and crutches to sustain an ever faltering species, the evolutionary adaptations overtake a species in decline. Evolution involves change and Man resists change not realising that evolutionary changes and adaptations can happen spontaneously.

106. An ancient virus released from frozen water is as dangerous as a new one. The current status to resistance is disadvantaged to deal with either scenario. Any evolutionary adaptation would be ineffective at withstanding the old.

107. Urine is the most abundant waste product on Earth? No. Composed mostly of water it cannot be waste. The dissolved components may be, but water? Never. It is a life force. The irony is clear.

108. Alcohol problems:
  • 125,000 fuelled domestic violence incidents
  • 2,000,000 related domestic violence
  • 39,000 sexual assaults
  • 1,300,000 affected children
  • 6,000 fetal alcohol syndrome
  • 660 children killed/injured
  • 7,000 non-drinker injured by drink drivers
  • 560 drink driving fatalities
  • 1,250,000 alcohol related vandalism
  • Binge drinking continues to escalate
  • Some town centres allegedly becoming no go areas
109. That human (science) thinking is still completely locked inside the box can be illustrated by working with the fixed idea of the Big Bang and that everything that exists everywhere is based on the same physical laws. Laws are only descriptions of observations that appear to be successful and it can only be assumption or speculation that enables this to be accepted without challenge. The fundamental issue here is: a universe expanding into what? Space void? So, where does this space come from?

110. Can genetically modified produce adapt a species? Humans and animals are both carnivores and Humans omnivores. Neither has 'evolved' into another species. But this presupposes a long period for any adaptation to take place. The most likely target is the single egg/sperm cells. What is the sperm and why are so many present at fertilisation when only one is required?

111. The confused message interpretation when the body requires nourishment. It may be water and can be confused as hunger, but what is hunger? Clearly, something is required though for what reason? This could be sugar (carbohydrate) for an energy boost or protein for the unheard cry for tissue growth or repair. Fat levels may be reduced so biochemical processes are failing. Too little fat can be as dangerous as too much. The mind can confuse other perceptions, too. Is fear being felt or is it excitement?

112.Reasoned debate is becoming more urgently necessary as climate change and global warming issues continue to gather pace. The brakes must be applied to slow the engine before a disaster consumes all human life. Other animal life will inevitably survive since it has no driving motivation based on greed.

113. As Earth orbit radius inevitably increases, the 'year' gets longer. So began 360 days and as many degrees in a circle. Now distorted at 365.25 days/year. How long would this increase take?

114. Titius-Bode: the eighth planet (Neptune) is too close (30.1AU) to the Sun to fit the empirical formula. It should be 38.8AU, but can be explained as massive aerobraking dragged the outermost gas giant inwards and the momentum energy of the 'Moon' object was dissipated and lost.

115. Pluto may not fit as a solar system 'planet', but its presence must not be overlooked. It's orbit may be different though this may be an effect of AU distance. Electron orbits are defined differently depending on orbital-type. The 'captured' object whatever its origin does exist.

116. The boiling point of diamond is 4827 degC and graphite: 4200 degC. The temperature at the surface of the Sun (photosphere) is in the region of 6000degC.

117. The detail of the mechanics involved in genetics is highly complex, but the principle is surprisingly simple. An aircraft may be a very complex machine, but it does rely on straightforward principles to enable flight and actually operate as an aircraft. Regarding DNA, two halves of a very long amino acid chain (the alleles, one from the male and the other from the female) combine to form a single double length chain (zygote) that forms the template from which a human is produced. Or a different living animal, be it a fish or a bird or a cat depending on the template. The basic components are essentially the same. The chain is constructed from four basic blocks that are assembled in the most part in an identical way and the order in which a number of these units combine results in a different and unique sequence. Should several identical aircraft stand beside one another, they can each be made to appear quite unique simply by finishing in a different colour. A minor change can result in an apparently very different aircraft, although as aircraft they are all identical. In the case of animals (including humans), very minor differences at specific places within the template will result in individual creatures that are essentially the same. Not exact copies as in clones, but very, very similar.

118. Can two alleles, both from a female (or male), be forced to combine? Parthenogenesis.

119. It is estimated that 125,000 years ago the Antarctic temperature was some 6degs warmer than today (deep ice core analysis). The assumption is that the sea was warmer. If the latitude was further up towards the equator by virtue of continental ‘drift’ then warmer conditions would be met. Any change in the axial tilt of the Earth could be caused very simply by weight redistribution over the surface. The internal liquid (mantle) would not necessarily move in synchrony with the outside shell on which the (shifting) land resides. Continual imbalances are inevitable.

120. An effective and clandestine mouth swab source for DNA would be used cutlery. This would potentially be totally unknown to the subject.

121. The ecliptic plane somehow connects all planets and orbits. An overall retrograde direction may apply, but this defines a combination of orbital direction and the direction of axial rotation. A planet may circumnavigate the Sun, effectively upside down. If axial rotation were 'normal', then the orbital direction would be opposite. The gravitational influence of counter-orbiting bodies 'passing' each other at very high relative velocity would be enormous.

122. Uranus has a retrograde and not prograde rotation direction. This planet has been inverted: it's orbital direction remains the same, though it is 'upside down' and the axial angle is roughly perpendicular to the plane of orbit. This is possibly a result of a 'moon object' entering the solar system. Planet Neptune was the initial encounter with enormous aerobraking, so the consequence of the altered trajectory at reduced speed manifested differently for Venus.

123. Perversely, combustion of 'fossil fuel' releases both carbon dioxide and water and both of these are originally destroyed (or converted) to form the 'fossil fuel'.

124. The addition of salt to sea water could possibly be used to increase the concentration and extend use of solid salt. The roads could then be 'sprayed' with it. Have any studies been conducted to test such an idea?

125. Rate of melting increases as surface area is reduced, though surrounding heat input does not significantly change. Melting of ice formations appears to accelerate.

126. What is regarded as constituting 'life'? Consciousness? Plants and rocks are different, but...

127. The S-shape swimming stroke is critical to speed creation. Without resistance, any stroke is made in the same direction as already moving water and any resistance is reduced as the consequence. As the body rolls, this S-shape is translated into a vertical conformation. Pushing behind develops the power in the stroke and does not stress the shoulder joint. It is a similar principle to a slipstream. In some circumstances (running or car racing), a reduction in resistance will enhance motion, but swimming in water has the opposite effect. It is moving out of the slipstream that enhances progress by creating a relatively non-moving mass and collecting relatively 'still' water has the effect of removing this undesirable slipstream. An incorrect hand-entry angle and failure to 'keep the elbow high' and 'over-the-barrel' will increase drag as the forearm paddle (hand + forearm) pushes against the flow and doesn't cut through it.

128. The invention of the dark matter concept is an attempt to force fit data into a contrived theory. This demonstrates the absolute limit of human imagination. Similar to trying to describe the front and back of an image simultaneously. The brain cannot deal with it. The practice continues to massage a theory to make a better theory and in the process move away from a discredited idea and into another untested one. One that enables more cherry picked ideas to be associated with the untested theory.

129. The whole concept of the Big Bang theory is a real non-starter. The idea goes nowhere from nothing. That something is created from nothing is a conundrum. The matter in the universe is apparently very little, but how this can be assessed is completely unknown. If the Big Bang can ever be considered a credible concept, then what started everything rotating? If gravity is the consequence of rotation then this creates a Catch-22 scenario.

130. The unique wavelength of infra-red emitted from a heater is absorbed readily by the skin and provides warmth similar to an open fire. The heat is instant - no warm-up time and the heater warms people directly without the need to heat the air first.

131. The Federal Analog Act only applies to drugs intended for human consumption.

132. Glaciers melt and cause flooding, but change is not met by people moving to avoid the consequences. Instead action attempts to resist these consequences. Not winnable as mankind's ego presumes invincibility. The perception of a contest has already caused it to be lost.

133. The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) has been ongoing for some 50 years. No evidence of any potential contact has been found. The 50 year window is infinitesimally small compared to the accepted age of the Universe: around 13.75bn years. That any alien intelligence desiring 'to be found' has not been located is a remote possibility in any case, assuming any theories of the age of the Universe are anything near being 'correct'. An alien intelligence could illustrate wisdom by not responding and simply staying silent. Again, assuming a similarly Human psyche. Probably, an investigative look has already happened. It's incredibly naïve to presuppose any thinking is like the Human objective and any intelligence capable of responding would probably have already known about Earth. Another major assumption is that the advancements in sophistication has occurred in a similar time-scale to that on Earth. Even 400 years. And remove the restrictive ideologies of religion that have shackled any advancements to the past and there is little to provide any chance of alien interest. However, the Earth could provide numerous raw materials for an advanced intelligence with advanced technologies. The scope for any unknown (to an alien) ores would mean considerable 'scientific' examination. Perhaps collection and removal to the 'home planet' would define any possibility of a return if something useful was found.

134. Obliquity (Axial Tilt) And Climate Change.  The Earth does not orbit the Sun in a perfect circle or a regular elliptical track. Neither is the Sun in the middle.

135. Vaccines are given to children who are intrinsically healthy and free of illness and who also will have an under-developed immune system. A similar prophylactic scenario to statins given to healthy people with the aim of preventing a heart attack that may never happen anyway. This is forcing drug therapy onto well people who don't need it.

136. Monocular and binocular vision: mental focus of image and peripheral vision. Is the visual cortex more sophisticated to enable simultaneous up-down-behind vision with the depth perception of binocular vision?

137. Does cancer originate from a genome that is changing in subtle ways? Not obvious physiognomy, but physiological changes. This implies an heredity (familial) link to cancers. The concept of eating other animals may have endured for the lifespan of the 'human' carnivore, but in recent times altering the DNA of foodstuffs (GM) has potentially accelerated damaging changes. If the genetics of an individual remain unchanged, then uncontrolled replication of a renewed cell suggests addition of something that affects the regeneration. Cells age and replacement of a dying cell can at this point be interfered with.

138. Exercise and weight loss are sometimes quite confused and confusing. One extreme is the failure to eat: food denial. Depending on the food type consumed, the mix of protein, carbohydrate and fat will vary. Protein repairs tissue and builds muscle that has undergone the stress necessary for growth. Without stressing muscle, it will not adapt to deal with future demands. The more stress and subsequent growth, the more capable and efficient it will become. Carbohydrate is required to undergo energetic activities and such a raised level is a requirement to 'burn off' fat. If a certain level of intensity is not reached, fat stores will not be appreciably reduced. Fat will not be touched unless a minimum start-point of activity intensity is attained. Exercise regimes must be gradually 'ramped-up' to achieve this starting point. Maintenance of this level for at least 30 minutes daily will consume fat stores and a continued quality diet is essential to achieve permanent weight control. The exercise regime and a good nutrient (diet) intake will satisfy any realistc goals. Carbohydrate is an essential for weight control and failure to consume carbohydrate will not enable a sufficient exercise intensity to burn fat. Failure to eat properly will not achieve healthy weight control. Eat yourself thin is absolutely true and if this is not done properly then weight loss may be the result, but ill-health will surely follow.

139. The genetic make-up for individuals is truly unique. No two individuals can be alike. Only actual clones can do that where the genome is copied exactly. All 3 billion or so letters (nucleotides) in its code sequence from start to finish. Identical twins are very similar and even if the appearance traits do not reveal differences, an entire formative years 'lifetime' of experience every moment of that lifetime could never be duplicated. Someone who is 5' 9" tall can never be 6' in height. It's a genetic impossibility. Body mass potential is genetic, but even though the physical appearance can be affected, the individual's potential can never be altered. The body can and does store fat and its physical appearance can vary depending on diet, yet the original genetic potential still does not change. When excess fat is 'burnt off', either by diet or diet and exercise the original appearance will be restored. Eating habits are by definition psychological and to reduce an undesirable excess if body weight the brain must be engaged. The physiology and psychology of the individual complement each other and cannot be separated. Focusing on either one will still involve the other. An athlete must work on both the technique of the sport and nutrition. These techniques may be specific to the sport, but nutrition is a common factor regardless of the discipline. A runner, weightlifter or gymnast must still use quality foodstuffs since they are all human even though they are individuals with a different genetic make-up. Human physiology works in the same way for all humans. Sports specificity is unique to a sport and will vary between different sports, but whatever sport is adopted the human remains human. Any future genomic adaptation is in the realms of science fiction and science fantasy.

140 Use of statins: possibly for use only by those unable to exercise to safely raise the intensity sufficiently and increase blood flow rate. The heart is a muscle, but health issues may compromise efforts to effect change. The arterial fat (cholesterol) may possibly only be reduced by drugs. However, when drugs have lowered any fat build up that may cause blockages to blood flow, exercise should take the place of drugs, but only if advised by a doctor. Coming off statins is not a simple affair and is a major reason that they are potentially harmful in the longer term: potential (physical) dependency.

141. The ellipticity of an orbit is the measurement that defines the change in its shape from more circular to a further extremity in the one (long) axis. The duration of an orbit is assumed to be unchanged over the 100,000 year cycle, but that could never be verified. Were the origins of 360 degs (one revolution) discovered to be the length of a day deep in human history, then the extension of a year to its current 365.25 days would illustrate a longer orbit of 5.25 days and probably further way from the Sun. But that's pure speculation.

The conical 'slice' description that defines an ellipse requires the angle to tilt with its central location unchanged. This would then relate to the ecliptic of transit around the Sun and defines a deviation from planar. Only a degree or so would produce change and if the angle of axial tilt does not change, the appearance is that it does though the actual cause may be that the ecliptic has moved. The precession of the equinoxes may have its origins in the variation of the ecliptic plane. The obliquity of the Earth is the change in the apparent axial tilt angle (21.5 degs -> 24.5 degs). This could be the change in the ecliptic and not a precession. The observed effects would be indistinguishable. Each planet's ecliptic probably varies, though staying roughly in the same plane.

142. Much of the confusion surrounding diets is created by disinformation. This is to commonly peddle the diet. Diet is misunderstood by being interpreted as short-term. Diet is the long-term (life-term) overall eating regime. Even that sounds inflexible, but it is just a way of life. In moderation, no food type need be excluded. Simply consumed occasionally. What is damaging is when a poor food quality becomes incorporated as the staple diet.

A restricted carbohydrate intake should be more rigorously enforced than a small excess of fat unless the exercise level demands it. High intensity, especially if for long periods, requires sugars to enable it. Unused sugar (carbohydrate) converts to fat in the body for storage. Sugar storage capacity (as glycogen) is limited: liver and muscle. When used up it must be replaced or further work will be severely curtailed. The lower intensity aerobic rate then allows fat to be used as the energy source. Low intensity for long periods for fat combustion. Short periods of high intensity anaerobic work require carbohydrate. The distinction between a sprint and a 'jog'. A sprint is very short 'explosive' and a jog can be very lengthy, but at a much lower intensity. A slow walk for several miles will consume fat almost exclusively. The rate of fat loss is also slow. Fat is a very efficient storage medium for large amounts of work. A lot more low intensity (sustained) work can be performed.

143. The exact match in human DNA between two individuals is considered impossible. Such a match legally defines the individual. Comparing two single and assumed unique samples uses between 10-13 different locations (loci), but in many places non-coding 'junk' DNA exists. The 'junk' is regarded as having no known function, though such sequences cannot be defined as useless. Only that the function is unknown. The fact that it is there suggests purpose though (currently) that cannot be explicitly verified.

A specific protein is synthesised from a gene and any such protein must be common to all humans. Otherwise humans would all function in different mutant forms, if at all, and a single genetic error can produce devastating effects. Particular traits (hair, eye, skin colour and individual physiognomy) all combine to differentiate individuals from each other, but as only visible differences don't generally affect physical function. Similar in principle to a stroke: brain tissue death in critical region can severely affect function. Elsewhere, no obvious damage may be evident.

144. SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) could easily be thwarted by keeping 'radio silence'. In warfare it is a standard practice when someone is assumed to be monitoring or listening-in.

145. The complexity and variety of life on Earth and the conviction and 'belief' of many that this planet is the only one in the Universe that houses any life (either less or more advanced) is amazing in its naïvety. That nowhere else has any life, but of the literally countless billions of suns... there is nothing? Statistically, this is absolute nonsense and logically, it does not stand-up to reason. The exclusivity to Earth is significant. Life may flourish on Goldilocks Earth, but it didn't start here. That defines its beginnings elsewhere in the past. This also suggests an absolutely older and, as a consequence, potentially more advanced origin. Some find that very disquieting and so religion flourishes. The belief in an unknown entity seems to be less worrying than accepting an alternative (currently unverifiable) explanation. It's the denial of 'God' by those who believe in 'God'. Very paradoxical.

146. Gravitational bending of light is the explanation for stars that can be observed during an eclipse of the Sun. They are behind the Sun. However, the brightness of the light could distort observation and give the appearance of a different location. Refraction.

147. Three colours are detectable by the human eye-brain system: yellow, green and violet. Light and consequently colour is not itself discrete though detection gives the appearance that it is. It is a continuous analogue waveform of a vast array of colours. Blending of primary colours yields interference patterns. Computer colour is discrete and digital, yet is incomplete compared to analogue. Even then much can still be missing and must depend on the limits of detection.

148. A taxiing jet will suddenly be heard when that engine points toward the observer. The same with light: only when head-on is light 'seen', but is otherwise not visible. Stray light reflected off atmospheric dust creates the illusion that this is untrue. Consider moonlight. Reflected glare reveals the presence of the Moon only. Moonlight isn't seen unless looking directly at the object or its light bounces off something (is reflected). The light remains invisible until something interferes with it.

149. Standing at a window half way up a tall building looking out at a (very) high rise block opposite, both the top and foot of the building are seen with the edges converging to distant points. At any height of the observer's location, the outside edges to right and left are parallel, yet up and down appear to be non-parallel. The same illusion potentially happens with light: light travels in straight lines and gravity does not need to be involved in 'bending' light even though the illusion of convergence can make it appear to be so. Straight lines in 2D become curves in 3D. An (imaginary) longitude line drawn on the Earth from the north polar axis point southwards forms a right angle at the equator. At the pole, a similar line at 90degs (east or west) to the first one descends to the equator bisecting it forming a right angle. The two parallel straight lines over a curved surface from the equator to the polar axis point converge in 3D or each of the three right angles (equator to pole and at the pole itself) describe a triangle over a curved surface. Curve of constant width. The 'flat' Earth illusion is caused by water (held by gravity) located over a curved surface.

150. Hot daytime, freezing cold night. Where? Equatorial desert regions. This is where the concept of climate change and global warming gets confused. It does not consider areas of winter deserts like the Gobi Desert.

Monday, April 06, 2009

Tongan Ring Of Fire

An underwater volcanic eruption has spewed out smoke and gas high into the sky creating a new island in the Pacific Ocean about 7 miles off the coast of Tongatapu, the main island of Tonga. This can be located to the southeast of Fiji and about 3000km off the eastern coast of Australia.

The conditions for the creation of pumice are easily met: high pressure lava (molten rock) ejected through low pressure water causing rapid cooling and the consequential formation of bubbles in the liquid. There is satellite picture-evidence of a huge raft of pumice floating about two miles north of the eruption. An earthquake (7.7 magnitude) caused the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (website) to issue a warning:

19th March 2009 19:31
Tonga Islands Region
Fixed Regional Warning Supplement
Pacific
  • Sea level readings confirm that a tsunami was generated. This tsunami may have been destructive along coastlines of the region near the earthquake epicentre. Authorities in the region should take appropriate action in response to this possibility. This center [sic] will continue to monitor sea level gauges nearest the region and report if any additional tsunami wave activity. The warning will not expand to other areas of the Pacific unless additional data are received to warrant such an expansion.
Hawaii (5000km distant) was potentially threatened, but the warning was later officially cancelled.